The findings of the project will be published in peer reviewed scientific journals. Our first articles are out now!

Hutchison, J., Ross, J., & Cunningham, S. J. (2021). Development of evaluative and incidental self-reference effects in childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Data available at

Ross, J., Hutchison, J., & Cunningham, S. J. (2019). The Me in Memory: The Role of the Self in Autobiographical Memory Development. Child Development

The research team have previously published the following relevant articles:

Cunningham, S. J., Scott, L., Hutchison, J., Ross, J., & Martin, D. (2018). Applying self-processing biases in education: Improving learning through ownership. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition7(3), 342-351.

Gillespie‐Smith, K., Ballantyne, C., Branigan, H. P., Turk, D. J., & Cunningham, S. J. (2018). The I in autism: Severity and social functioning in autism are related to self‐processing. British Journal of Developmental Psychology36(1), 127-141.

Ross, J. (2017). You and me: Investigating the role of self-evaluative emotion in preschool prosociality. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2016.11.001

Ross, J., Martin, D. Cunningham, S. J (2016). How do children develop a sense of self? The Conversation.

Ross, J., Yilmaz, M., Dale, R., Cassidy, R., Yildirim, I. & Zeedyk, M.S. (2017). Cultural differences in self-recognition: The early development of autonomous and related selves? Developmental Science (picked up and publicised by the BPS research digest:

Cunningham, S. J., & Turk, D. J. (2017). A review of self-processing biases in cognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology70(6), 987-995.

Allan, K., Morson, S., Dixon, S., Martin, D. & Cunningham, S. J. (2017) Simulation-based mentalizing generates a ‘proxy’ self-reference effect in memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Sparks, S., Cunningham, S. J., & Kritikos, A. (2016). Culture modulates implicit ownership-induced self-bias in memory. Cognition, 153, 89-98. 

Cunningham, S. J. (2016). The function of the self-attention network. Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, 21-22. 

Turk, D. J., Gillespie-Smith, K., McGowan, L., Havard, C., Conway, M. A., Krigolson, & Cunningham, S. J. (2015). Selfish learning: The impact of self-referential encoding on children’s literacy attainment. Learning & Instruction, 40, 54-60. 

Cunningham, S. J., Brebner, J. L., Quinn, F., & Turk, D. J. (2014). The self-reference effect on memory in early childhood. Child Development, 85, 808-823.

Cunningham, S. J., Vergunst, F., Macrae, C.N., & Turk, D. J. (2013). Exploring early self-referential memory effects through ownership. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 289-301.

Cunningham, S. J., Brady-Van den Bos, M., Gill, L., & Turk, D. J. (2013). Survival of the selfish: Contrasting self-referential encoding and survival processing. Consciousness and Cognition, 22, 237-244.

Turk, D. J. Brady-Van den Bos, M., Collard, P., Gillespie-Smith, K., Conway, M. A., & Cunningham, S. J., (2013). Divided attention selectively impairs memory for self-relevant information. Memory and Cognition, 41, 503-510.

Cunningham, S. J., Van den Bos, M., & Turk, D. J. (2011). Exploring the effects of ownership and choice on self-memory biases. Memory, 19,449-461.

Smallwood, J., Schooler, J. W., Turk, D. J., Cunningham, S. J., Burns, P., & Macrae, C.N. (2011). Self-reflection and the temporal focus of the wandering mind. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 1120-1126.

Ross, J., Anderson, J.R., & Campbell, R.N. (2011). I remember me: Investigating mnemonic self-reference effects in preschool children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76, 1-102.                                

Ross, J., Anderson, J.R., & Campbell, R.N. (2011). Situational self-awareness influences 3- and 4-year-olds’ self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 126-138.